Factor 5: Provide feedback early and often. Feedback must be 1) timely, 2) specific, 3) understandable to the student, 4) allow for student's self-adjustment. Feedback is more effective while the learning is happening: it should not be vague; it should be in a language the students understand (rubrics are often in teacher-ease); students should be able to adjust their learning as it is happening. This practice is exemplified with the ninth "modern characteristic" which states the importance of a comprehensive integration and combination of skills and knowledge.